Nutrition is a very complex subject, because there is a strong differentiation between the individual species. By specializing in a particular food, a species can avoid competitive pressure from others. On the other hand, a species that eats pretty much anything that contains nutrients can also do very well in a biotope because it can utilize anything that somehow comes along. Between these two extremes there are many gradations and also temporal variables. Especially the temporal component is important for many species. For example, there are food types that are only available at certain times of the day or year, such as plankton, which only reach the surface at night and remain either in deep water or on or in the substrate during the day. Or fruits that ripen only at certain times of the year, or insects that float on the water in large quantities at high tide. But ultimately, the specialists, as well as the opportunists, depend on getting sufficient nutrients in a readily digestible form.
As aquarists, we can take advantage of this fact by providing the animals with a diet that has an average, easily digestible composition. The biggest problem is the acceptance by the animals, because especially wild caught fish are still very strongly influenced by the natural food. Now, of course, one can ask how can a standard feed simulate the variable conditions in nature? This is of course only possible to a very limited extent, but it is possible to divide most fish and invertebrates into well-definable categories and to determine the amount to be fed based on the course of the day and the year. Unfortunately, the variability of composition can only be shown to a very limited extent for ready-made feeds, because the manufacturing process does not allow for all raw materials. The Panta Nouri feed range provides nine different formulations: omnivorous, herbivorous, carnivorous, emergent, approach, wood, sponge, polyp, plancton. Thus, specialists as well as generalists among the fish can be fed optimally.
With Panta Nouri many aquarium fish can be fed 100% healthy. For specialized species it is necessary to know the specific feeding habits and then feed accordingly to ensure that malnutrition does not occur. Such malnutrition leads to different problems, such as fatty degeneration, constipation, "white feces" or deficiency symptoms. Therefore, it is very important to know exactly the nutritional habits of the species kept. But also with the opportunistic species it makes sense to provide variety to simply get more "life in the joint". In nature there are always opportunities like a broken branch with ants or aphids, a swarm of mayflies floating dying on the water surface, a school of young fish swimming by unattended by their parents or a swarm of freshly hatched shrimps being fanned into the water by their mother. Panta Nouri, on the other hand, can be fed every day and then provides a balanced diet without unnecessarily polluting the water with nitrates and phosphates.
Panta Rhei has therefore made the following basic considerations for a feeding recommendation: there are phases, such as growth or spawning maturation, where more nutrients are needed than in the phases in between, where the food supply in nature does not allow for fast growth or spawning. The following recommendation can be derived from this: the nutrient composition and amount in Panta Nouri results in maximum growth/effective spawning development at about 5% of the fish weight per day, with about 2% of the fish weight per day a healthy maintenance of the body weight is possible. These two values refer to average swimming fish in a weakly moving/stagnant water or aquarium at about 25° Celsius. If the metabolism is stimulated by higher temperatures or more water movement, then the feeding rate must of course be increased, this also applies in the reverse case, if the temperature is reduced, then the food requirement also decreases accordingly. A general feeding recommendation is therefore very difficult to give. However, the above can serve as a guide. Over the year, the amount of food should correspond to between about 2% and 5% of the fish's weight per day. For every 5° Celsius increase in temperature, the amount of feed doubles, just as a 5° Celsius decrease in temperature should result in a halving of the amount of feed. The water movement should be calculated into the feed ration as follows: at zero to five times the circulation of the tank contents multiply the determined amount by a factor of one, at 5 to 15 times by a factor of 1.5, at 15 to 45 times by a factor of 2 and at 45 to 100 times by a factor of 3. This all reads very complicated but is relatively easy to implement and we are happy to assist you in creating a feed plan. An example could look as follows: an adult Geophagus (100 g) lives at low water in a very warm (32° Celsius) residual water pond there it needs about 2% of its body weight per day multiplied by 2.5 for the increased water temperature, this corresponds to 5 g Panta Nouri, which are distributed in as many rations as possible over the day. During the period of High Water, he lives in a fast flowing part of the main river at about 25° Celsius and is developing spawn for the upcoming egg laying. It therefore requires 5% of its body weight per day times 3 for the increased water movement and thus swimming activity, which then equates to 15 g of Panta Nouri per day with the distribution again over as many rations as possible.
Of course, these elaborate considerations only apply if the natural environmental conditions are also simulated in the aquarium. In a traditionally maintained aquarium it is of course also quite simple. Panta Nouri does not contain any attractants. All raw materials are exclusively of natural origin and are handled very carefully and environmentally friendly.
In order to enable the most natural feed intake possible, Panta Nouri is available in very different sizes, because in nature, portioning is not done with knife and fork either. The behavioral inventory of the individual species is used much more intensively when different particle sizes are fed. A supposedly too large chunk of food is treated quite differently than a large amount of tiny food particles which then all have to be collected. For this reason Panta Nouri is not only available in one particle size, but also sieved in different particle sizes. This allows for more variation in feeding. As tasty and balanced as the fillet steak with baked potato and salad may be, after the 100th time even that becomes boring and bland.